Concerts for Clavier and Orchestra by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Trends in the Development of the Genre in the Context of His Composer Method
Keywords:Mozart's piano concertos, concert genre of the 18th century, Mozart's concert form, Mozart's operas, polythematism, instrumentation
In recent years, research opportunities in the field of Mozart studies have expanded. As a result, new scientific paradigms are emerging that differ from the generally accepted ones. Even the well-known facts of the composer's biography and work can be viewed in a new way today. The interdependence of Mozart's instrumental and theatrical music has long been studied, but still remains an inexhaustible source for new research – this determines the relevance of the study.
Main objective of the study – to determine the interaction of the two sides of Mozart's work: instrumental and theatrical and extrapolate it to the formation of composition and thematic dramaturgy in the genre of piano concerto.
Methodology of research: biographical method that highlights the context and motivation of writing music works, including piano concertos, analytical and comparative method allows identifying patterns in the development of the compositional form of piano concertos.
Results and conclusions. Mozart's piano concertos in the context of interaction with the composer's opera and theatre activities are considered. A synchronized chronography of his piano concertos and operas is provided. It was found that the interdependence does not lie in the intonational affinity of the thematic material of works written in one year (although there is some similarity of themes in several works). Piano concertos, which Mozart wrote during his life (unlike violin concertos, which almost all were written in one year – 1775), demonstrate an evolutionary slice of his work, in the depths of this genre formed a new approach to its composition, which is an important link formation of a piano concerto of the XIX century. Piano concerts are analyzed in terms of trends in the formation of musical themes: almost all works are polithematism in the main parts. Regarding the distribution of themes in the double exposition, there is also a certain tendency, namely in the appearance of part B (or part B2) in the soloist's exposition. Mozart preferred a new keyboard instrument with percussion mechanics – the pianoforte. It met the agogic and dynamic needs in the development of thematic material. Mozart's desire to be recognized as an opera composer in Vienna faced many obstacles - from the established rules of the genre and the dominance of Italian opera on the Viennese stage to even restrictions on thematic development (respectively, intonation and dramaturgy development of the characters). However, it was his opera characters that inspired the composer to create bright themes in instrumental music, including piano concerts. We can say that his piano concertos are a kind of theatre for instruments, in which events develop according to the rules of theatrical dramaturgy.
The significance of the research. The article proposes a comprehensive approach, which clarifies how the creative method of Mozart is formed. The analysis of the main tendencies in the development of the intonation form of piano concertos revealed regularities that allow us to speak about the composer's creative motivation, and is a contribution to Ukrainian research of the Mozart’s music works.
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